Signs and Symptoms of Thyroid Disease

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Different Types of Thyroid Disease

The endocrine system in the human body is a network of numerous glands. The glands in the endocrine system coordinate physiological functions by secreting hormones directly into the bloodstream. The thyroid is a small gland in the endocrine system located just below Adam’s apple. Even though the thyroid is a small gland, it has a great role to play in the physiological process. The thyroid gland produces hormones that are responsible for maintaining energy levels, body temperature, weight, skin, hair, and nail growth etc.

Different Types of Thyroid Disease

Thyroid disease is categorized according to its signs and symptoms. Some of the common types of thyroid diseases are:

  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Thyroid Nodules
  • Thyroiditis
  • Goiter
  • Graves Disease


Hyperthyroidism means your thyroid gland is producing more thyroid hormones. When thyroid begins to produce more thyroid hormones ( triiodothyronine and thyroxine) than your body actually needs, it will increase your metabolism and palpitation. A sudden increase in blood pressure is a common sign of hyperthyroidism. The problem in the immune system is the primary cause of hyperthyroidism.


When the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones, it is a condition of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is characterized by slowing down the body’s metabolism. Tiredness and weakness are some of the common signs of hypothyroidism.

Thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer occurs is caused when the cancerous cells build and spread in the thyroid gland. The cancer of the thyroid gland is characterized by swelling in the neck, a lump in the neck, difficulty in swallowing, and a hoarse voice. Sometimes thyroid cancer does not show any symptoms. That’s when there is a thyroid nodule.

Thyroid Nodule

A human body may have one thyroid nodule or many nodules. One of the common thyroid diseases is the swelling of a thyroid nodule. This is caused when the thyroid nodule hardens or is filled with fluid or blood. This thyroid disease is more common in women compared to men.


Thyroiditis is the inflammation of the thyroid gland. When the symptoms of thyroiditis occur, you might be affected with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or both. In Postpartum thyroiditis, women will first have hyperthyroidism and then hypothyroidism. There is various kind of thyroiditis, some of the common types are:

  • Postpartum thyroiditis
  • Acute thyroiditis
  • Subacute thyroiditis
  • Radiation-induced thyroiditis
  • Drug-induced thyroiditis
  • Silent thyroiditis
  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
  • Goiter

Goiter is a disease of the thyroid when your thyroid swells and becomes very large. If you have a goiter, you do not have to worry much because the symptoms will subdue in a couple of days and you may not require medical treatment. Sometimes the symptoms persist and this might indicate another thyroid disease. Goiter occurs more in women than in men.

Graves’ Disease

Graves’ disease is not actually a disease of the thyroid gland but a disease of the immune system. However, Graves’ disease is characterized by the production of too many thyroid hormones. This condition is common in women. The symptoms of Graves’ disease include insomnia, anxiety, double vision, and menstrual irregularities.

The Signs and Symptoms of Thyroid Disease

Here are the signs and symptoms of some common thyroid diseases. If you see these signs and symptoms, you should immediately seek medical attention.

Hypothyroidism Symptoms

  • Feeling nervous, anxious
  • Feeling cold even in a normal or hot weather
  • Feeling of sadness or depression
  • Feeling tired and weak
  • Skin becomes pale and dry
  • Constipation
  • Hair loss
  • Unusual weight gain
  • Joint and muscle pain
  • Slow palpitation
  • Hoarse voice
  • More menstrual bleeding
  • Face becomes puffy

If you see any of the aforementioned symptoms, you should immediately test your thyroid levels and seek medical advice. When hypothyroidism is not treated, myxedema occurs, which is an advanced form of hypothyroidism. Myxedema is life-threatening.

The signs and symptoms of myxedema include:

  • Decrease in body temperature
  • Low blood pressure
  • Slow breathing
  • Unresponsiveness
  • Comma

Hyperthyroidism symptoms

  • Weight loss despite eating more food
  • Increment in appetite
  • Irregular palpitation
  • Feeling irritated all the time
  • Sleeping problem
  • Hands and finger trembling, weakness in the body
  • Feeling hot and sweating profusely all the time
  • Diarrhea
  • Less than normal bleeding during the menstrual cycle
  • Bulging eyes, redness in eyes

Hyperthyroidism weakens the bones, which may cause to the breaking of bones. In hyperthyroidism osteoporosis is common.

Thyroid nodules symptoms

  • The thyroid gland becomes large
  • A lump appears in the neck

Apart from the two symptoms mentioned above, thyroid nodules show no other apparent symptoms

Goiter symptoms

  • The thyroid gland becomes enlarged
  • Difficulties in breathing, talking, and swallowing
  • Hoarseness in voice

When the thyroid gland swells (a condition referred to as goiter), both the food pipe and air pipe are affected. The thyroid gland might be slightly swollen or largely swollen. In this condition, you can’t breathe, can’t swallow foods, or may have difficulty in speech.

Thyroid cancer symptoms

  • Swelling in the neck
  • Severe pain in the neck that can go up to the ears
  • Cough that occurs without any sign of a cold
  • Change in the voice, hoarseness in the voice
  • Lump in the neck that continues to grow bigger
  • Breathing and swallowing problems

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